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“People will divide into “parties” over the question of a new gigantic canal, or the distribution of oases in the Sahara (this type of question will exist too), on the regulation of the elements and the climate, over a fresh theatre, over chemical hypotheses, over two competing tendencies in music, and over a best system of sports.”
– Leon Trotsky, Literature and Revolution

In the beginning of the sites like firstrowsports twentieth century sport hadn’t flourished in Russia to the same extent as in countries such as for example Britain. The majority of the Russian population were peasants, expending hours every day on back-breaking agricultural labour. Free time was difficult to come by and even then individuals were often exhausted from their work. Needless to say people did still play, getting involved in such traditional games as lapta (much like baseball) and gorodki (a bowling game). A smattering of sports clubs existed in the larger cities however they remained the preserve of the richer members of society. Ice hockey was beginning to grow in popularity, and top of the echelons of society were fond of fencing and rowing, using expensive equipment most people would never have been in a position to afford.

In 1917 the Russian Revolution turned the world upside down, inspiring millions of people with its vision of a society built on solidarity and the fulfilment of human need. In the process it unleashed an explosion of creativity in art, music, poetry and literature. It touched all areas of people’s lives, including the games they played. Sport, however, was definately not being a priority. The Bolsheviks, who had led the revolution, were confronted with civil war, invading armies, widespread famine and a typhus epidemic. Survival, not leisure, was the order of the day. However, during the early the main 1920s, before the dreams of the revolution were crushed by Stalin, the debate over a “best system of sports” that Trotsky had predicted did indeed happen. Two of the groups to tackle the question of “physical culture” were the hygienists and the Proletkultists.

Hygienists
Because the name implies the hygienists were a collection of doctors and healthcare professionals whose attitudes were informed by their medical knowledge. Generally speaking they were critical of sport, concerned that its focus on competition placed participants at risk of injury. These were equally disdainful of the West’s preoccupation with running faster, throwing further or jumping higher than ever before. “It really is completely unnecessary and unimportant,” said A.A. Zikmund, head of the Physical Culture Institute in Moscow, “that anyone set a new world or Russian record.” Instead the hygienists advocated non-competitive physical pursuits – like gymnastics and swimming -as ways for folks to stay healthy and relax.

For a period of time the hygienists influenced Soviet policy on questions of physical culture. It was on their advice that one sports were prohibited, and football, boxing and weight-lifting were all omitted from the programme of events at the First Trade Union Games in 1925. However the hygienists were far from unanimous in their condemnation of sport. V.V. Gorinevsky, for instance, was an advocate of playing tennis which he saw as being an ideal physical activity. Nikolai Semashko, a doctor and the People’s Commissar for Health, went much further arguing that sport was “the open gate to physical culture” which “develops the sort of will-power, strength and skill that should distinguish Soviet people.”

Proletkult
In contrast to the hygienists the Proletkult movement was unequivocal in its rejection of ‘bourgeois’ sport. Indeed they denounced anything that smacked of the old society, be it in art, literature or music. They saw the ideology of capitalism woven into the fabric of sport. Its competitiveness set workers against each other, dividing people by tribal and national identities, as the physicality of the games put unnatural strains on the bodies of the players.

In place of sport Proletkultists argued for new, proletarian forms of play, founded on the principles of mass participation and cooperation. Often these new games were huge theatrical displays looking more like carnivals or parades compared to the sports we see today. Contests were shunned on the basis that they were ideologically incompatible with the new socialist society. Participation replaced spectating, and each event contained a definite political message, as is apparent from a few of their names: Rescue from the Imperialists; Smuggling Revolutionary Literature Across the Frontier; and Helping the Proletarians.

Bolsheviks
It would be easy to characterise the Bolsheviks as being anti-sports. Leading members of the party were friends and comrades with those that were most critical of sport through the debates on physical culture. Some of the leading hygienists were close to Leon Trotsky, while Anotoli Lunacharsky, the Commissar for the Enlightenment, shared many views with Proletkult. Furthermore, the party’s attitude to the Olympics is generally given as evidence to support this anti-sport claim. The Bolsheviks boycotted the Games arguing that they “deflect workers from the class struggle and train them for imperialist wars”. Yet the truth is the Bolshevik’s attitudes towards sport were somewhat more complicated.

It is clear that that they regarded participation in the brand new physical culture as being very important, a life-affirming activity allowing people to experience the freedom and movement of their own bodies. Lenin was convinced that recreation and exercise were integral parts of a well-rounded life. “Teenagers especially have to have a zest for life and be in good spirits. Healthy sport – gymnastics, swimming, hiking all types of physical exercise – should be combined whenever you can with a variety of intellectual interests, study, analysis and investigation… Healthy bodies, healthy minds!”

Unsurprisingly, in the aftermath of the revolution, sport would play a political role for the Bolsheviks. Facing internal and external threats which may decimate the working class, they saw sport as a means by which the health and fitness of the populace could be improved. As early as 1918 they issued a decree, On Compulsory Instruction in the Military Art, introducing physical training to the training system.

This tension between the ideals of a future physical culture and the pressing concerns of the day were evident in a resolution passed by the 3rd All-Russia Congress of the Russian Young Communist League in October 1920:

“The physical culture of the younger generation is an essential aspect in the entire system of communist upbringing of young people, targeted at creating harmoniously developed human beings, creative citizens of communist society. Today physical culture also offers direct practical aims: (1) preparing teenagers for work; and (2) preparing them for military defence of Soviet power.”

Sport would also are likely involved in other areas of political work. Prior to the revolution the liberal educationalist Peter Lesgaft noted that “social servitude has left its degrading imprint on women. Our task would be to free the female body of its fetters”. Now the Bolsheviks attempted to put his ideas into practice. The positioning of women in society had recently been greatly improved through the legalisation of abortion and divorce, but sport may possibly also are likely involved by increasingly bringing women into public life. “It is our urgent task to draw women into sport,” said Lenin. “If we are able to achieve that and obtain them to make full usage of the sun, water and fresh air for fortifying themselves, we will bring an entire revolution in the Russian life-style.”

And sport became another method of conveying the ideals of the revolution to the working classes of Europe. The worker-sport movement stretched over the continent and an incredible number of workers were members of sports clubs run mainly by reformist organisations. The Red Sports International (RSI) was formed in 1921 with the express intention of connecting with one of these workers. Through the following decade the RSI (and the reformist Socialist Worker Sports International) held several Spartakiads and Worker Olympics in opposition to the official Olympic Games. Worker-athletes from across the globe would come together to take part in a whole range of events including processions, poetry, art and competitive sport. There was none of the discrimination that marred the ‘proper’ Olympics. Individuals of all colours were eligible to take part irrespective of ability. The results were quite definitely of secondary importance.

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